Collective Spatial Strategies in Urban Kampung Communal Toilet
Living in a high density urban kampung with limited space and resources involves challenges to meet basic service needs. Various collective spatial systems represent the community strategies in dealing with their limited situation. This paper addresses the communal toilet system in urban kampung as a collective spatial system developed by the community. The study identifies various spatial strategies incorporated within the system, as well as social structures embedded within the spatial practice. The understanding of spatial and social system in the communal toilet system provides some insights for the development of appropriate spatial strategies for urban kampung communities.
Keywords: urban kampung, community, spatial, strategies, toilet
eISSN 2514-751X © 2018. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open-access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.