Open Space as Evacuation Areas on Super Levees along the Arakawa River, Japan

  • Nurul Ashikin Mabahwi Graduate School of Engineering and Science, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan
  • Hitoshi Nakamura Department of Planning, Architecture and Environment Systems, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan
  • Yasmin Bhattacharya SIT Research Laboratories, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan


The objective of this study is to re-evaluate the conceptualisation of super levees by focussing on the availability of open spaces as evacuation areas along the Arakawa River. By using land use, occupation and cross-section analysis, this study found that open spaces on super levees able to accommodate a large number of evacuees. This proves that the development of super levees is undeniably ready to provide sizeable safe upland evacuation area for nearby residents. This study also implies that the future development of super levee should include more open space by the development of a public park on the site.

Keywords: super levee; open space; flood; evacuation

eISSN 2514-751X © 2019. The Authors. Published for AMER, ABRA & cE-Bs by E-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open-access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( Peer-review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.


How to Cite
MABAHWI, Nurul Ashikin; NAKAMURA, Hitoshi; BHATTACHARYA, Yasmin. Open Space as Evacuation Areas on Super Levees along the Arakawa River, Japan. Asian Journal of Environment-Behaviour Studies, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 14, p. 21-52, nov. 2019. ISSN 2514-751X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 19 feb. 2020. doi:

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.